Additional Resources

Articles on Thinking Dispositions

"Making Thinking Visible" Ron Ritchhart and David Perkins. "Making Thinking Visible," Educational Leadership 65, no. 5 (February 2008): 57-61.

"Uncovering Students' Thinking about Thinking Using Concept Maps"- a paper prepared for the AERA Conference, March 2008.

Cultivating a Culture of Thinking in Museums Ron Ritchhart, “Cultivating a Culture of Thinking in Museums,” Journal of Museum Education 32, no. 2 (Summer 2007): 137-54.

Schools Need to Pay More Attention to "Intelligence in the Wild" David N. Perkins, “Schools Need to Pay More Attention to "Intelligence in the Wild," Harvard Education Letter (May/June 2000)

Intelligence in the Wild David N. Perkins and others, “Intelligence in the Wild: A Dispositional View of Intellectual Traits,” Educational Psychology Review 12, no. 3 (2000): 269–93.

Why Teach Habits of Mind? Shari Tishman, “Why Teach Habits of Mind?” in Discovering and Exploring Habits of Mind, ed. Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick (Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2000), 41-52.

Life in the Mindful Classroom: Nurturing the Disposition of Mindfulness Ron Ritchhart and David N. Perkins, “Life in the Mindful Classroom: Nurturing the Disposition of Mindfulness,” Journal of Social Issues 56, no. 1 (2000), 27–47.

Making Thinking Visible David N. Perkins, “Making Thinking Visible,” (2003)

Visible Thinking Shari Tishman and Patricia Palmer, “Visible Thinking,” Leadership Compass 2, no. 4 (Summer 2005).

Works of art are a good thing to think about Shari Tishman & Patricia Palmer. "Works of art are a good thing to think about: A study of the impact of the Artful Thinking program on students' concepts of thinking. In Evaluating the Impact of Arts and Cultural Education. Paris: Centre Pompidou, 89-101.

The object of their attention Shari Tishman. "The object of their attention". Education Leadership, February 2008. 65 (5) pp. 44-46

Thinking about Thinking: Preservice teachers stregthen their thinking artfully Susan Barahal. "Thinking about Thinking: Preservice teachers stregthen their thinking artfully". Phi Delta Kappan, 90 (4). pp. 298-302


Available Books

David N. Perkins, Smart Schools: Better Thinking and Learning for Every Child (New York: The Free Press, 1995).

In this book, David Perkins draws on over twenty years of research to reveal the common misguided strategies students use in trying to understand a topic, and then shows teachers and parents what strategies they can use with children to increase real understanding.

David N. Perkins, The Intelligent Eye: Learning to Think by Looking at Art (Santa Monica, CA:The Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1994).
In this unique contribution to the literature of arts education, David Perkins explains why looking at art requires thinking and presents an argument for the value of looking at art as a means to cultivate thinking dispositions. Drawing on research in cognition, he explains why art is uniquely qualified to support habits of reflective thinking.

Ron Ritchhart, Intellectual Character: What It Is, Why It Matters, and How to Get It (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2002).

Now in paperback, Intellectual Character presents illustrative, inspiring stories of exemplary teachers to help show how intellectual traits and thinking dispositions can be developed and cultivated in students to promote successful learning. This book provides a model of authentic and powerful teaching and offers practical strategies for creating classroom environments that support thinking.

Shari Tishman, David N. Perkins, Eileen Jay, The Thinking Classroom: Teaching and learning in a Culture of Thinking (Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1995).
Going beyond the piecemeal approach of injecting thinking skills into existing classroom lessons or units, The Thinking Classroom shows how to transform the classroom, through a culture of thinking, into a place where the many aspects of high-level thought—skills, attitudes, values, and habits of mind—are supported and encouraged by the learning environment.

Tina Grotzer, Laura Howick, Shari Tishman and Debra Wise, Art Works for Schools: A Curriculum for Teaching Thinking In and Through the Arts. (Lincoln, MA: DeCordova Museum and Sculpture Park, 2002).
Art Works for Schools is a curriculum program that teaches high-level thinking in and through visual art and theater. This product of a five-year collaboration of three organizations, several schools, and many individuals is written primarily for classroom teachers who are not art specialists.



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